Apollinarianism

Essence Though Jesus was a man, he did not have a human mind but that the mind of Christ was solely divine. Apollinarianism taught that the two natures of Christ could not coexist within one person. So Jesus was presented as a human body with a divine mind. History Apollinaris the Younger, bishop of Laodicea in…

Nestorianism

Essence Belief that Jesus Christ was a natural union between the Flesh and the Word, thus not identical, to the divine Son of God. History Advanced by Nestorius (386–450), Patriarch of Constantinople from 428–431. The doctrine was informed by Nestorius’ studies under Theodore of Mopsuestia at the School of Antioch. Condemned at the First Council…

Adoptionism

Essence Belief that Jesus was born as a normal human being (ie not divine), was supremely virtuous and that he was adopted later as “Son of God” by the descent of the Spirit on him. History 1st propounded by Theodotus of Byzantium, a leather merchant, in Rome c.190, later revived by Paul of Samosata.  Theodotus…

Arianism

Essence Arianism asserts that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was created by God the Father at a point in time, is distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to the Father. History Arius (c. AD 250–336), a Christian presbyter in Alexandria, Egypt, is most generally thought of as the first proponent…

Advent

The Holy Season of Advent is upon us again. Dusting off the purple sanctuary banners, altar falls, pulpit falls, and all the other bits we use. I hear talk of Advent being like a mini-lent and the trend to do special Advent studies, join Advent study groups, give up something for Advent, and I am…