The Black Swan

The late 1st Century Roman Poet Juvenal is generally credited with the earliest written reference to the Black Swan and like so much of his work it was satirical. He characterised something as being  ”a rare bird in the lands, and very like a black swan” by which he pretty much meant  what we might mean when we say…

The Apostles Creed

I believe in God, the Father almighty, creator of heaven and earth. I believe in Jesus Christ, God’s only Son, our Lord, who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried; he descended into hell. On the third day he rose again; he…

The Edict of Milan

The Edict of Milan did not make Christianity the religion of the Roman Empire. Constantine, having seen a vision of the Chi Rho in the sky and been successful in battle, did not immediately abandon the old Gods of Rome. Constantine was born in February 272 AD, the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius who was…

Restore The Nicene Creed

Restore the Nicene Creed The Document attached here explores the history of how the Filioque Clause came to have a place within the Nicene Creed, and an assessment of whether it belongs there or not. It looks at the matter within the context of Scripture, Tradition and Reason. It also discusses the place within the liturgy…

Single or Double Procession?

I must quickly add this is not a new liturgical innovation at Christ Church St Laurence, but a consideration of the theology of the procession of the Holy Spirit be it ‘from the father’ as witnessed by the Church at three ecumenical councils or ‘from the Father and the Son’ as contended by Augustine, the…

The Holy Trinity

In writing on the subject of the Filioque Clause I realised how little thought was given to the theology that is at stake here, so rather than continue to expand the article on the Filioque Clause I decided it would be better to write an article on the subject of the Holy Trinity, and with…